Racial classification is somewhat arbitrary, but in general there are five great races which are: black (African-American), brown (Latino/Hispanic), red (American Indian/Native American), white (Caucasian), and yellow (Asian). Not too surprisingly, one racial classification may not be the most appropriate designation for a significant amount of peoples in America, to which some people will identify themselves as being multi-racial, whereas others that do have multi-racial characteristics do not.
As you might suspect, the census questions in America in regards to race have changed over the years, so that in the 18th century the categories for race were not the same or as diversified as we have currently, nevertheless, according to Wikipedia.org, in 1790, 19.3% of all Americans were African-American, although the vast majority of these African-Americans were enslaved. While the population of African-Americans has always increased in America decade by decade, the percentage of African-Americans in America has continued to drop so that the African-American total population percentage is now just 12.6% as of the 2010 census. In the year 2000, for the first time, since the census had been taken in America, African-Americans were surpassed by Hispanics in America, by a relatively small percentage. However, in 2010, the Hispanic population in numbers as well as percentage far exceeded African-Americans, as there is estimated to be over 50 million Hispanics in America, at a percentage of 16.3% of the population, whereas African-Americans are not even 39 million peoples.
The fact that Hispanics have overtaken African-Americans in America is not a big surprise, as significant portions of America, use to be part of Mexico, Mexico is contiguous to the United States, Hispanic immigration, legal as well as illegal, has historically been quite high, and Hispanics have the highest birthrate of any race in America. What this does mean for African-Americans is that they will never again be the second most populous race in America. This could pose a tremendous problem for African-Americans as in only the last fifty-odd years, have African-Americans been able to assert any sort of political or economic power within America, to which this power may soon dissipate and be ceded over to another racial group as African-Americans become displaced. This does not mean that Hispanics and African-Americans should be at odds with one another, not at all, in actuality, working together may be the most prudent and beneficial thing to do in order to accomplish their collective goals.
In 1960, there were less than 1 million Asians in America. As of the census of 2010, there are now nearly 15 million Asians in America. Additionally, according to the nytimes.com, it was Asians, not Hispanics, that were the biggest immigrants to America in 2010, as: "about 430,000 Asians — or 36 percent of all new immigrants, legal and illegal — moved to the United States in 2010, compared with 370,000 Hispanics." Whereas for African-Americans, according to Wikipedia.org, we find that "from the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 to 2007, an estimated total of 0.8 to 0.9 million Africans immigrated to the United States" This means, that in a forty-two year period, not even 1 million Africans immigrated to America, whereas in just one year, almost 1/2 million Asians did.
Only recently have African-Americans been surpassed in population by Hispanics in America, and that was mainly because of the massive amount of immigration of Hispanics to America, and additionally the higher birthrate of Hispanics. If Asians are able to continue to immigrate to the United States at numbers approaching 1/2 million peoples, year after year, they will too surpass African-Americans, far sooner than anyone expects at the present time. So in fairness, to African-Americans, who were first taken to this country by force, a far more liberal policy of African immigration to America should be implemented and this needs to occur now.